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Temporal Discrimination, Prediction And Expectation

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An unresolved issue is which of the neural structures, whether edicated to time or not, might underlie the estimation, prediction, and cumulative expectancy of temporal duration under dynamic conditions that necessitate the integration of spatial information.
Here, we compare and contrast the behavioral and neural correlates of spatial/temporal representation and iscrimination/prediction/expectation on moving visual stimuli within the same experimental paradigm. Using functional magnetic resonance, we suggest 3 distinct roles: the right insula and left TPJ appear modulated by the perceptual estimations of temporal durations; the right caudate is engaged by the incorrect signal in cortico-striatal timing mechanism modulates for the temporal prediction of future events; and the SMA mediates the elapsed time used to predict the visual temporal expectation that a certain event will occur. Our findings indicated SMA, IFG, and cerebellum play also a role in the time perception irrespective of whether temporal discrimination or prediction were computed, identifying a context independent timing network of sub-seconds for perceptual markers.
In conclusion, our results, suggest that the processing of temporal information is modulated by a distributed set of areas that can be differently engaged depending on different temporal contexts. These results also reinforce previous observations about a general-purpose system for mediating sub-second time measurements.

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  • Temporal Discrimination, Prediction And Expectation